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Trade Axes - Hudson's Bay Company Trade Axes
                   

Hudson's Bay Company Trade Axe - Axe Head Indian Trade Axe
       Trade axes are perhaps one of the most important and essential trade items produced. The axe is a multipurpose tool. It was used for every day uses as well as for ceremonial purposes and could be used as a weapon when needed. These axes were imported from European countries by the thousands, although many were made on site at trading posts and forts by blacksmiths. These were hand forged, made from a single piece of iron, heated and folded over a mandrel to make an "eye" or hole for the handle and forge welded together. Sometimes referred to as a "Lap-weld". Early "eyes" were round holes. Later the eyes became tear-dropped or oval shaped and later still rectangular. Handles or "helve's" were made by the natives or white-traders. Many axe heads had maker's marks or commonly referred to as "touch marks". Touch marks were usually made with an iron "touching" the axe head when it was red hot, making a mark. Cast or factory made axe heads with makers marks are often referred to as "guild marks". The most commonly found style of axe heads are known as the "French" style, or "Biscay" style - since they were manufactured in the Biscay region of France. There are many other styles such as Spike axes, Squaw axes, Double flared blade axes, Trapper's Axes or
Tomahawk - Peace Pipe TomahawkHudson's Bay Axes are sometimes found with a notch to catch hold of a trap or chain. There is also the classic Tomahawk style which often has a "Pipe" stem. Peace Pipe Tomahawks were mostly made for ceremonial purposes and denoted status. Elaborate Peace Pipe Tomahawks are highly prized by collectors. There are many other shapes and styles of axes.

         Books:  
              Beaulieu, Alain, Roland Viau. 2001. The Great Peace: Chronicle of a Diplomatic Saga. Editions Libre Expression, Montreal, Quebec                
              
Russell, C. P. 1967. Firearms, Traps And Tools Of The Mountain Men. New York, NY, Alfred A. Knopf.
              Hothem, Lar . 2003. Indian Trade Relics Identification and Value. Collector Books, Paducah, KY.
              Huck, Barbara. 2002. Exploring the Fur Trade Routes of North America Discover the Highways that Opened a Continent.
              Heartland Publications, Winnipeg, MB
              Miller, Preston. 1971. Four Winds Indian Beadwork & Old Flathead Photos A Manual of Beading Techniques.
              Miller, Preston, Carolyn Corey. 2007. The New Four Winds Guide to Indian Weaponry Trade Goods, and Replicas. Schiffer Publishing.
              Payne, Michael. 2004. The Fur Trade in Canada an Illustrated History. James Lorimer & Company Ltd., Publishers, Toronto, ON
              Wheeler, Robert C. 1985. A Toast to the Fur Trade: A Picture Essay on its Material Culture. Wheeler Productions, St. Paul, MN.

             Links:
               Firearms, Trade Goods and Weapons of New France
               Trade Axe & Tomahawk Collectors Association
               Ebay - Trade Axes & Tomahawks -- Authentic or Reproduction
               Trade Axes & Tomahawks--Authentic or Reproduction?
               Relics of the Fur Trade
               1755 L'Histoire ET LES HISTOIRES - Trade axes, Lamèque Island, circa 1645
               Fur Trade Axes & Tomahawks - Fakes, Mistakes & reproductions

            Forums
               BladeForum

            REFERENCES:
               Iron Trade Axe from the Plater-Martin Site
               Indian Tomahawks & Frontier Belt Axes - by Hartzler, Daniel D. & James A. Knowles 1995

            MANUFACTURERS & RETAILERS:
               Wiseman Trading and Supply
          Gransfors Tomahawks
               Dicks Fine Tools
               Nati
ve Arts Trading Co.

          

 

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Trade Beads - Hudson's Bay Company Trade Beads

                                   Hudson's Bay Company Trade Beads         Hudson's Bay Company Trade Beads Chevrons           Hudson's Bay Company Trade Beads Delph

Hudsons Bay Trade Beads Russian Trade Beads Cobalt Fur Trade Indian Trade Beads Beads brought color to the native people. Before the white-man came native people made beads out of seashells, stones, bones and rolled copper. Most European beads are made of silicon, or glass, but they were also made of cast sand, metal and other materials. Many of these trade beads were made in Murano, Venice . Although beads are most often thought of as jewelry and adornment for clothing, they also possessed wealth. Since there was no money a couple of hundred years ago, beads were used as currency to barter for other goods. To some chiefs, especially on the west coast beads were important status symbols. To flaunt his wealth and importance, a chief might throw hundreds of trade beads away out into the water. Beads are still found along the beaches of the west coast today. Beads were also given to natives as gifts or while forming alliances or insurance of passage. Beads were often an important element in sealing a treaty deal. Beads were looked upon as a symbol of friendship.
There are hundreds of different kinds and colors of beads. Beads are a study in themselves and their understanding and nomenclature can be difficult. Beads have been made for thousands of years and many of the old styles are still being made today. This has added confusion to collecting and the understanding of their distribution during the trade. To add to the confusion most of the beads on the market today have been brought here from Africa . Europeans traded the same kind of beads in Africa as they did in North America during the seventeen and eighteen hundreds. The Russians are believed to have traded the “Russian Blue” beads – a dark cobalt blue glass bead - on the northwest (Alaskan) coast before it was bought by the United States . Europeans also traded the “Russian Blues” in Africa . The so-called “Lewis and Clark” bead is a beautiful glass bead with colorful floral spiral inlays. However, there is some evidence that this bead may not have been made until some years after the expedition of Lewis & Clark. Perhaps the most prized bead of all is the “Chevron”. The Chevron is usually a large multi-colored and multi-layered glass bead, most are red, white and blue in color. The bead is ground on both ends to form a melon shape. By doing so it exposes the different layers of colors and produces a chevron appearance. There are many other colorful beads such as “feather beads”, “delphs”, “eye beads”, “millefiori” beads and hundreds of other beads known as “fancy” beads. There are also many solid color beads in various shapes and sizes. The Cornaline D'Aleppo beads are of great interest to collectors. They range in size and shape but all have a greasy yellow inner core. “White Heart” beads are also called “ Hudson's Bay beads". They are red, sometimes blood red with a white core. The above names of the beads have been placed in quotation marks since the nomenclature can vary from locality to locality and even the same names may refer to a totally different bead in localized areas.Some beads are knowingly misnamed to create importance and increase their value. Beads were, and still are, highly prized by natives and whites alike. For more information about Beads click here.

                           Lewis & Clark Trade Beads - Fur Trade Indian Trade Beads          Feather Beads Hudsons Bay Trade Beads - Fur Trade Indian Trade Beads          Chevron Trade Beads Hudsons Bay Trade Beads - Fur Trade Indian Trade Beads      Hudson's Bay Company Trade Beads Chief's Bead Cobalt
            "Lewis & Clark" Beads                "Feather" Beads                         Chevrons


         Books:    
            Beaulieu, Alain, Roland Viau. 2001. The Great Peace Chronicle of a Diplomatic Saga. Editions Libre Expression,
            Montreal, Quebec       
            Miller, Preston. 1971. Four Winds Indian Beadwork & Old Flathead Photos A Manual of Beading Techniques.
            Miller, Preston, Carolyn Corey. 2007. The New Four Winds Guide to Indian Weaponry Trade Goods, and Replicas. Schiffer Publishing
.

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Hudsons Bay Company Blankets                                                                                                                Top

                                                    

            BOOKS:
            Tichenor, Harold. 2002. The Blanket: an Illustrated History of the Hudson's Bay Blanket. A Quantum Book, Toronto

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Assumption Sash - Metis Sash

                                                   

         Books:  

            Barbeau, Marius 1972. Assomption Sash. National Museum of Canada.
            Miller, Preston. 1971. Four Winds Indian Beadwork & Old Flathead Photos A Manual of Beading Techniques.
            Miller, Preston, Carolyn Corey. 2007. The New Four Winds Guide to Indian Weaponry Trade Goods, and Replicas. Schiffer Publishing
.

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Canoe Cups                                                                                                                 Top

Voyageurs Cup - Canoe Cup - Fur TradeVoyageurs Cup - Canoe Cup - Fur Trade  Canoe cups or "Voyageurs Cups" were personally handmade by the voyageurs themselves usually out of a piece of "burl" of a hardwood tree. The cups were carried on their belts or sashes with a toggle keeper to secure them. They were carried on their person at all times, handy whenever they needed a drink from a stream or a lake. Since they were made of wood they would float if dropped in the water. This one is painted with red and black pigments.

 

 

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Clay Pipes - Hudson's Bay Company Trade Pipes
Clay Pipes - Trade pipes - Kaolin Pipes - Voyageurs pipes - Mogadore pipes - White Eart Pipes       Some of the early trade pipes were made out of pewter and often, though cheaply made, were rather ornate. Early clay pipes or "Kaolins" which refers to the white clay which was used to make them, were very crudely made. They usually have a little dimple at the base of the bowl resulting from the "spur" where the clay was poured into a mold. These pipes are sometimes referred to as "white-earth" pipes. They were shipped from Europe to the colonies by the millions. Usually only shards or bowls of the clay pipes are found as they are so delicate. Sometimes the natives used the stem shards as beads or other adornments. Millions of clay pipes were made in Mogadore, Ohio. Mostly only the bowls of these pipes were made and came with a separate wooden or cane stem. They were often "glazed" and made from a red clay. Other colors can also be found such as green, brown and yellowish. Because clay pipes are formed in a mold there are many hundreds of different graphic patterns and makers names found on them. Clay pipes are still being made today.

                                   White Clay Pipe - Hudson's Bay Company Trade pipe - Kaolins pipe - Fur Trade White Clay Pipe - Hudson's Bay Company Trade pipe - Kaolins pipe - Fur TradeWhite Clay Pipe - Hudson's Bay Company Trade pipe - Kaolins pipe - Fur Trade

BOOKS & REFERENCES:

      Paper, Jordon. 1988. Offering Smoke: the Sacred Pipe and Native American Religion. University of Idaho Press.
      Pfeiffer, Michael A. Clay Tobacco Pipes and the Fur Trade of the Pacific Northwest and Northern Plains Vol I, II III.
      Pfeiffer, Michael A. The Euopean Picture Book of Clay Pipes Vol 1 and II
      Pfeiffer, Michael A. Clay Pipes in the William Demuth & Co. Cataloque

      LINKS:

      William Demuth & Co. Pipe Manufacture - Pipedia - a Wiki for Pipes
      Clay Pipes
      Canadian Clay Tobacco Pipe Industries - Robin Smith
      Robert Bannerman and the Bannerman Family of Clay Tobacco Pipe Makers - Robin Smith
      Colony of Avalon Foundation and Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Site Project
      Jamestown Rediscovery - Tobacco Pipes - The Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities
      The Fur Trade and Historical Archaeology: A Bibliography - Compiled By Michael A. Pfeiffer

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Copper Kettle, Trade Kettles or Copper Pots - Hudson's Bay Company Trade Kettles and Brass Trade Pail
     

 

Hudson's Bay Company Copper Kettles - Trade kettles - Copper Pots

        Copper Kettles came in various sizes from very small, 4 inch in diameter to very large. They were usually stamped with the size ie. 1 QT (one quart) or 3 PT (3 pints). They have a very characteristic pattern and are elaborately made for a "simple" camp pot. They are made of copper or brass. Early pots have "dove-tailed" seams. Later pots were extruded. The lid has a free-floating ring riveted in place with an iron keeper. The edges were rolled and the inside was lined with tin. They also have an elaborate rim to stop the lid from going down to tight. The bale is secured on both sides with an elaborate round iron bud, or "ear" riveted to the side of the pot. The pots are made with heavy gauge metal - evidence that they were designed for heavy use and long lasting durability. The designer also thought about the transportation and storage of these pots, both for shipping and in the field. Because of the various sizes they can be "nested" inside each other to cut down on space. A very desirable trade item 200 years ago and today! None were stamped with HBC or a manufacturer's mark that I know of. Also see "Nesting pots" below.  

 


        


                                                                         Brass Trade Pail Patent date of 1865

         Books:  
          Beaulieu, Alain, Roland Viau. 2001. The Great Peace Chronicle of a Diplomatic Saga. Editions Libre Expression, Montreal, Quebec.   
          Miller, Preston. 1971. Four Winds Indian Beadwork & Old Flathead Photos A Manual of Beading Techniques.
          Miller, Preston, Carolyn Corey. 2007. The New Four Winds Guide to Indian Weaponry Trade Goods, and Replicas. Schiffer Publishing
.

            REFERENCES:
              The Four Lives of a Micmac Copper Pot - Indiginous Studies Research Portal Tool
              Copper kettle - Sam Waller Museum



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Fur Bale Tag

                                                                        
                                                                                                            Fur Bale Tag

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Trade Guns - Northwest Guns - Hudson's Bay Company Trade Guns 

        
            
Hudson's Bay Company Trade Gun - Northwest Gun - Fusils - French Trade Guns - Chief's Trade Gun - Treaty Gun Indian Trade GunHudson's Bay Company Trade Pistol - Trade Gun - Northwest Gun - Fusils - French Trade Guns - Chief's Trade Gun - Treaty Gun 
When you mention the words "trade gun" the first gun that comes to mind is the "Northwest Gun" but, there were trade guns around long before the classic northwest gun was made. The French started trading guns or “fusils” to the natives in the early sixteen hundreds as did the British and the Dutch in colonial America . It wasn't until the Hudson's Bay Company started their company in the 1670's that trading guns was done on a large scale. The guns themselves were not made by the Hudson's Bay Company. The company secured contracts for trade guns from many different gun manufacturers. Some have the initials of the makers under the barrels. Many have the maker's names on the lock plate. Names like Wilson, Sunderland, Wheeler, Barnett, Hollis, Ketland and Parker Field & Son. The Northwest Gun came in various barrel lengths and are noticeably apparent by their “serpent” or “dragon” side plate and oversized trigger guard. Most people believe the name Northwest Gun was derived from the name of the North West Company but, in fact the gun was called the Northwest Gun long before the company was formed. The North West Company stamped a “Sitting Fox” in a "circle" on the butt of the stock and also on the lock plate and on top of the barrel. After the union of the two companies in 1821 the Hudson's Bay Company used a stylized “Tombstone Fox” cartouche stamped in the lock and on the top flat of the barrel. They were a .60 caliber smooth bore which could be loaded with a single round ball or with shot. Even though they were cheap to make, the guns were very reliable - evidence in that many of these guns found today are still functional. By the 1840's trade guns were being produced in the “new” percussion ignition system. Percussion caps cost money so many native and white trappers preferred the flintlock system. Flintlocks were still being manufactured right up until 1875. Some trade guns were embellished and known as “Chief's Grade” guns and were given to chiefs to form important military alliances or when signing treaties.

          American gun makers such as Tryon, Leman and Deringer also made trade guns. They each had their own distinct design but some guns were made in a similar likeness to the Northwest gun - right down to stamping British proof marks onto the barrel. It is believed that Lewis and Clark carried the U.S. Model 1803 muskets to trade with the natives on their exploration of discovery in 1804 . Trade guns were used and carried every day. Some with long barrels were cut down for ease of maneuverability in canoes and on horseback. It is a myth that traders made the natives pile up beaver skins as high as the barrel in order to buy a trade gun. Prices were very much standardized across the country. In the midst of the trade a gun was worth about 16 beaver skins. Prices went up and down throughout the centuries with supply and demand, and inflation. If you consider the price of a “new” trade gun today and what it costs to buy a beaver skin, not much has changed in two hundred years.
           There are some very early trade pistols with serpent side plates that were made for the trade. There are also some later flintlock pistols made in the early eighteen hundreds of a particular style which are called “Trade Pistols” but, not everyone agrees that they are a “true” trade pistol.
The trade gun changed the way of life, and in some cases death, of the native people.

                                                            Hudson's Bay Company Trade Gun - Fur Trade

Lewis & Clark's Guns

                      Video of Lewis & Clark's Air Gun

         Books:               
                                 Hudsons Bay Company Trade Guns 
           Baldwin, John. 2002. Indian Guns, Spears and Shields of the American Frontier. W. Olive, MI, Early AmericanArtistry Pub. Co.
       Beaulieu, Alain, Roland Viau. 2001. The Great Peace Chronicle of a Diplomatic Saga. Editions Libre Expression,
                   Montreal, Quebec   
            Dorsey, R. Stephen 1995. Guns of the Western Indian War. Eugene, OR, Collectors Library.
           duMont, J. S. 1974. Custer Battle Guns. Ft. Collins, CO, The Old Army Press.
           Gooding, S. James. 2003. Trade Guns of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1670-1970. Alexandria Bay, NY, Museum Restoration Service.
           Hanson, Charles E., Jr. 1955. The Northwest Gun. Lincoln, NE, Nebraska State Historical Society.
           Hanson, James A. 2005. When Skins were Money: A History of the Fur Trade. Chadron, NE, Museum of the Fur Trade.
           Hanson, James A. 2011. The Encyclopedia of Trade Goods: Firearms of the Fur Trade. Museum of the Fur Trade, Chadron, NE.
           Parsons, John E. and DuMont, John S. 1953. Firearms in the Custer Battle. Harrisburg, PA, Stackpole Company.
           Paul, V.A. 2000. Missouri Gunsmiths To 1900. Washington, MO, Obscure Place Pub. Co.
           1988. Guns at the Little Bighorn. Lincoln, RI, Mowbray, Inc.


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SHOOTING ACCESSORIES

          Trade Gun Accessories - Possibles bag - Fur Trade       Trade Gun Accessories - Powder Horn - Fur Trade   Trade Gun Accessories - Bullet Mold - Fur Trade       Trade Gun Accessories - percussion Cap Tins - Fur Trade
                   Possibles Bag                            Powder Horn                                  Bullet Mold                               Percussion Cap Tins

         Books:  
      Beaulieu, Alain, Roland Viau. 2001. The Great Peace Chronicle of a Diplomatic Saga. Editions Libre Expression,
                   Montreal, Quebec  

      Miller, Preston. 1971. Four Winds Indian Beadwork & Old Flathead Photos A Manual of Beading Techniques.
      Miller, Preston, Carolyn Corey. 2007. The New Four Winds Guide to Indian Weaponry Trade Goods, and Replicas. Schiffer Publishing
.


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BEAVER HATS

Hudson's Bay Company - Top Hat - Beaver Hat - Fur Trade


The fashions in Europe determined the demand for fur in North America. When fur bearing animals were depleted in Europe the demand shifted to North America. From the early 1600's beaver were in great demand for making hats. The "top hat" came into fashion in the late 1790's. The demand  for top hats was all but over by the time the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company amalgamated in 1821.




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Links:
               The Beaver Hat - White Oak Society
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TRADE POINTS- Harpoons -Hudson's Bay Company Trade Points


Hudson's Bay Company -  Harpoon Point- Fur Trade
  In the early days of the trade harpoons and spear points were used to hunt mammals and fish. Fish spears had muli-tang points with barbs. Beaver and muskrat harpoons were long shafts with two offset barbs. These were either made in Europe and shipped to the Colonies or more often were made by the fort blacksmith from scrap metal or old files. Harpoons were made with detachable points with lined attached so they could retrieve the game. Arrow points were cut out of metal using an old trade axe head as an anvil and a chisel to cut out the point.

Hudson's Bay Company -  Trade Point- Fur Trade - Arrowhead

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FUR SCALES & STEELYARDS

Hudson's Bay Company Fur Scales - Fur Trade

       These balance scales were more for the merchants or traders to weight dry goods. The scale was suspended by the top ring and a pan or some kind of container was hung on the hook with the particular merchandise in it and the weight was moved along the graduated bar until it balanced and indicated the weight of the goods.


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TRADE TOKENS - Hudson's Bay Comapany Trade Tokens

Hudson's Bay Company Trade Tokens- Fur Trade East MainHudsons Bay Company Trade Tokens - East Main      There are a number of different kinds of Hudson's Bay Company trade tokens. The most interesting tokens are the "East Main" brass tokens. They come in four sizes. The largest is equivalent to "One Made Beaver". There is also 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 respectively in size. On one side they have the company's crest and on the other the value of the coin. "HB" for Hudson's Bay "EM" for East Main" 1 for "1 Made Beaver"  and "NB" for "Made Beaver". East Main refers to the district of James Bay, Canada called East Main.

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Trade Knives - Dags and Skinners - Hudson's Bay Company Trade Dag - - Hudson's Bay Company Trade Knives
   

Hudsons Bay Dag - Bayonet

    Knives were perhaps the most important and revolutionary trade item. They transformed the natives out of the stone age. Knives, even more so than the axe could be used for many things - in particular the "Dag". The dag was fashioned after the large stone spear points. It was strong and could be used for heavy chopping, as a spear point, a utility knife, skinning and butchering, a spear point and as a weapon. They were shipped to North America from Europe by the barrel load. There were also made by resident blacksmiths in the trading posts. They were traded without handles. The handles were usually ornate and made of wood and often tacked. Some beautiful knives were made with a bone handle with a serrated copper ring at the top for a scrapper. They are often seen with a universal "circle" and "dot" design in the bone. They most have been very common in the mid 1800's as early explorers noted natives wearing them with a thong attached to their wrists. They are often marked with a makers name such as "Jukes Coulson, Stokes & Co." or "IS" for John Sorby. Some very desirable dags are marked with a "Circle" and "Sitting Fox" design which was traded by the North West Company. They are also known as the "Columbia River Knife", in some areas it was called a "Beaver Tail Knife".

Skinners
Russell Trade Knife Skinning Knife  Indian Trade Knife
   Russell Trade Knife An I. Wilson Knife marked "Green River"

                                                                             
      Books:  
                  Beaulieu, Alain, Roland Viau. 2001. The Great Peace Chronicle of a Diplomatic Saga. Editions Libre Expression,
                    Montreal, Quebec  
                  Russell, C. P. 1967. Firearms, Traps And Tools Of The Mountain Men. New York, NY, Alfred A. Knopf.

                  Miller, Preston. 1971. Four Winds Indian Beadwork & Old Flathead Photos A Manual of Beading Techniques.
              Miller, Preston, Carolyn Corey. 2007. The New Four Winds Guide to Indian Weaponry Trade Goods, and Replicas. Schiffer Publishing.

                                                            

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RELICS: Trade Gun and Trap Parts- Hudson's Bay Company Trade Relics                                                                                     Top

Fur Trade Relics Gun Parts

Relics of an old blown gun barrel, flint lock plates, frizzen springs, breech plugs, an old cock, a pair of piers, a couple of old knife blades and pieces of old animal traps.

 



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HIDE SCRAPERS - Gun Barrel      Fur Trade Hide Scrapper Gun Barrel Scraper


    

 

 

     Scrapers were used to scrape the fat and viscera off of animal skins. Scrapers were very valuable tools, but most were made from scrap metal by the natives themselves or with the help of blacksmiths. In this case the scraper is made from an old cut off gun barrel and wrapped with hide. The end of the barrel is flattened and the edge is filed into a sharp serrated edge. Scrapers were made from just about any scrape metal even butt plates and trigger guards. Some very nice steel scrapers are made with antler or bone handles and fashioned similar to an adz.

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JEWELRY - Hudson's Bay Company Trade Silver

       Trade Silver Gorget - Native Copper Bracelets Native Copper Bracelets
Silver Gorget and Copper Bracelets
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ANIMAL TRAPS

     Animal Traps - Snap Traps Leg Hold Traps

      Books:  
                 Beaulieu, Alain, Roland Viau. 2001. The Great Peace Chronicle of a Diplomatic Saga. Editions Libre Expression,
                   Montreal, Quebec    
          
             
Russell, C. P. 1967. Firearms, Traps And Tools Of The Mountain Men. New York, NY, Alfred A. Knopf.
              Miller, Preston. 1971. Four Winds Indian Beadwork & Old Flathead Photos A Manual of Beading Techniques.
              Miller, Preston, Carolyn Corey. 2007. The New Four Winds Guide to Indian Weaponry Trade Goods, and Replicas. Schiffer Publishing.

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OTHER TRADE GOODS - Hudson's Bay Company Trade Items
          Tobacco Twist - Smoking Collectibles Fur Trade Goods   Trade Buttons Fur Trade Goods
                 Trade Thimbles - Sewing Collectibles Fur Trade Goods                    Trade Bell Fur Trade Goods
                      Twist of Tobacco                 Mother of Pearl Buttons         Sewing Thimbles - also used as adornments on clothing               Bells

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Hudsons's Bay Company Store Items

Trapper Booklets

                    Trapper's Guide Book

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TOBACCO TINS - Hudson's Bay Company Tobacco Cans

          Hudson's Bay Company Tobacco Can - Fur Trade Hudson's Bay Company Tobacco Tin - Fur Trade Hudson's Bay Company Plug Tobacco Plug - Fur Trade

         Books:  

                 Miller, Preston. 1971. Four Winds Indian Beadwork & Old Flathead Photos A Manual of Beading Techniques.
                 Miller, Preston, Carolyn Corey. 2007. The New Four Winds Guide to Indian Weaponry Trade Goods, and Replicas. Schiffer Publishing.

 

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TEA TINS - Hudson's Bay Company Tea Tins and Paper Package

         

         Books:  

                 Miller, Preston. 1971. Four Winds Indian Beadwork & Old Flathead Photos A Manual of Beading Techniques.
                 Miller, Preston, Carolyn Corey. 2007. The New Four Winds Guide to Indian Weaponry Trade Goods, and Replicas. Schiffer Publishing.

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COFFEE CANS - Hudson's Bay Company Coffee Cans


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WHISKEY BOTTLES & RUM JUGS - Hudson's Bay Company Rum Jug & Whiskey Bottles

          

         Books:  

                 Miller, Preston. 1971. Four Winds Indian Beadwork & Old Flathead Photos A Manual of Beading Techniques.
                 Miller, Preston, Carolyn Corey. 2007. The New Four Winds Guide to Indian Weaponry Trade Goods, and Replicas. Schiffer Publishing.
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GUN POWDER TINS

          Hudson's Bay Company Gun Powder Can - Fur Trade
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POWDER FLASKS

          Hudson's Bay Company Powder Flask - Fur Trade

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PERCUSSION CAP TINS

          Hudson's Bay Company percussion Caps - Fur Trade

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MEDALS - Hudson's Bay Company Long Service Medals

          Hudson's Bay Company Medal - Fur Trade

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PHOTOGRAPHS


          Hudson's Bay Company Stereoview Photograph - Fur Trade
                               Metis Skinning Buffalo

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LINKS
FUR TRADE HISTORY
      Exploration The Fur Trade and The Hudson's Bay Company         
      Mountainmen and the Fur Trade      
      Museum of the Fur Trade                
      Mountain Man Plains Indian Canadian Fur Trade
      The Fur Trade - Powell County Museum and Arts Foundation
      The Fur Trade and Historical Archaeology: A Bibliography
      Library of Western Fur Trade Historical Source Documents
      The Fur Trade: "Beaver Powered Mountaineering"

      Canada Hall - The Fur Trade
      Fur Trade and Trapping
      Fur Trade Stories
      Southwest Frontier and the Fur Trade 1800 - 1850
      Women in the Fur Trade
      John McLoughlin, Father of Oregon
      The Fur Trade Era, 1650s to 1850s - Wisconsin Historical Society
      Mountain Man Indian Fur Trade Beads
      The Fur Trade ... The Hudson's Bay and NorthWest Companies

      Indian Trade Goods - Canadian Encyclopedia
      Fur Trade Stories

FUR TRADE HISTORIC SITES
      Fur Trade at Lachine National Historic Site of Canada<>
      Museum of the Fur Trade
< >Fur Trade Links in General
     The Fur Trade Collection - Minnisota Historical Society

FUR TRADE CLUBS & ASSOCIATIONS
       Coalition of Historical Trekkers
       American Longrifle Association
       Armory Hill Living History Association

MANUFACTURERS & RETAILERS
       Blue Heron Mercantile
       Horns by Sulinai
       Rapine Bullet Manufacturing Company
       Tennessee Valley Muzzleloading

RE-ENACTING THE FUR TRADE
       Dogwood's Trekking Page
       Granny Lin's Trekking Page
       The Seventeenth Century Society
       Silver Bear's Trekking Page
       William Christian's Allegheny Rangers

 


BOOKS
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Search Books
Bibilography

Native Art Books
Fur Trade History
Lewis & Clark Books
Trade Guns & Trade Good Books
Native Books

 

      

      MOST READ BOOKS

               Knowledge is Power

 Collect what you Know
                      and Know what you Collect!



                                "I cannot live without books" -Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

NATIVE ARTS BOOKS______________________________
           Cohodas, Marvin; Feder, Norman; Feest, Christian F.; Haberland, Wolfgang; Wade, Edwin L.1986.Native Arts of North            America. Hudson Hills Press, New York, NY.
           Hanson, James A.; Forrest Fenn;. 1994. Spirits in the Art. Lowell Press.

FUR TRADE HISTORY BOOKS_________________________________
           Chittenden, Hiram. 1986. The American Fur Trade of the Far West. Volume 1 Univ of Nebraska Pr, Chapel Hill,
           North Carolina
           Chittenden, Hiram. 1986. The American Fur Trade of the Far West. Volume 2 Univ of Nebraska Pr, Chapel Hill,
           North Carolina
           Cowie, Isaac. 1993. The Company of Adventurers A Narrative of Seven Years in the Service of the Hudson's
           Bay Co.
University of Nebraska Press.
           James A. Hanson. 2005. When Skins Were Money A History of the Fur Trade. Museum of the Fur Trade, Chadron, NE
           Ronda, James P. 1990. Astoria and Empire University of Nebraska Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
           Huck, Barbara. 2002. Exploring the Fur Trade Routes of North America. Heartland Publications, Winnipeg, MB
           Adventurers in the New World: The Saga of Coureurs des Bois
           William M. Kelso. 2008. Jamestown The Buried Truth. University of Virginia Press
           Gowans, Fred R. 1985. Rocky Mountain Rendezvous Gibbs M. Smith, Inc./Peregrine Smith Books, Layton, UT

LEWIS & CLARK - BOOKS___________________________
           Hood, Gary Allen. 2006. After Lewis and Clark The Forces of Change, 1808-1871 Gilcrease Museum
           McLaughlin, Castle. 2003. Arts of Diplomacy Lewis & Clarks Indian Collection. Peabody Museum / University of            Washington Press, Seattle WA.
           Utley, Robert M. 2005. After Lewis and Clark Mountain Men and the Paths to the Pacific. Bison Books

TRADE GUNS & TRADE GOODS - BOOKS_____________________
           The Collector's Guide to Point Blankets of the Hudson's Bay Comp
           Bouchard, Russel.The Fusil de Tulle in New France, 1691-1741. Museum Restoration Service
           Corey, Carolyn . 2001. The Tradecloth Handbook Meti Mercantile Press, St. Ignatius, MT
           Dubin, Lois Sherr. 1987. The History of Beads From 30,000 BC to the Present. Harry N. Abrams
           Hanson, Charles E., Jr. 1988. The Hawken Rifle Its Place in History. Fur Press, Nebraska
           Hanson, Charles E., Jr. 1981. The Northwest Gun. Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln
           Hanson, James A. 2011. The Encyclopedia of Trade Goods: Firearms of the Fur Trade. Museum of the Fur
           Trade, Chadron, NE.
           Hanson, James A. 2005. When Skins Were Money A History of the Fur Trade Museum of the Fur Trade, Chadron, NE
           de Vore, Steven Leroy. 1992. Beads of the Bison Robe Trade: The Fort Union Trading Post Collection. Friends of
           Fort Union Trading Post, Willsiton, N. Dakota
           Hanson, James A.2001. Metal Weapons Tools and Ornaments of the Teton Dakota. Museum of the Fur
           Trade, Chadron, NE
           Gooding, S. James - Trade Guns of the Hudson's Bay Company 1670-1970. Museum Restoration Service,
           Bloomfield, Ont.
           Karklins, Karlis. 1992. Trade Ornament Usage Among the Native Peoples of Canada Canadian Government Publishing
     Tichenor, Harold. 2002. The Blanket: an Illustrated History of the Hudson's Bay Blanket. A Quantum Book, Toronto

NATIVES_____________________________________
           The People of the Buffalo: The Plains Indians of North America V
           The People of the Buffalo: The Plains Indians of North America V
           Hanson, James A. 1996. Little Chiefs Gathering: The Smithsonian Institution. Fur Press


     

 

 

BOOKS

         Hudsons Bay Company Trade Guns S. James Gooding - Trade Guns of the Hudson's Bay Company 1670-1970 available at the Museum Restoration Service
            The Fur Trade Author: Paul Chrisler Phillips, J. W. Smurr;
            Early Fur Trade on the Northern Plains Author: David Thompson, John Macdonell,
            The American Fur Trade of the Far West Author: Hiran Martin Chittenden, Hiram Marti
            Blackfoot Fur Trade Author: John G. Lepley
            The Fur Trade of the American West, 1807-1840 Author: David J. Wishart
           
   The Fur Trade on the Upper Missouri, 1840-1865 Author: John E. Sunder
         John Jacob Astor Author: Lewis K. Parker
         Keepers of the Game Author: Calvin Martin
         Backbone of the World Author: Edward Louis Henry
         Indians in the Fur Trade Author: Arthur J. Ray
         The American Fur Trade Of The Far West V2 Author: Hiram Martin Chittenden
   

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